Almaty city

Almaty – is the largest city in Kazakhstan, located on the south-east of of Kazakhstan, in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau, the city’s population is about 1, 9 million inhabitants. Although Almaty is no longer the capital of the republic,but  the city remains the financial, economic and cultural center of Central Asia.

There are a lot of business centers, theaters, museums, art galleries, exhibition halls and modern entertainment complexes (cinemas, night clubs, parks, restaurants, cafes).

Almaty was the capital of Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1997. In accordance with Presidential Decree “On Declaration the capital of the republic Astana”, Almaty was awarded the status of the  city and the southern capital of the republic, the largest financial, scientific and cultural center. Residence of the Head of State and Government also remained in the city.

The food and light industries are the dominant share of the city’s economy and account for more than 70% of industrial enterprises. Heavy Industry of Almaty is presented with several engineering and repair factories.

Almaty is always considered as a garden city, surrounded by magnificent Tien Shan firs. Many centuries in a row the snowy peaks of the mighty Zailisky Tau, soar to the sky, creating the impression of majestic. The fragrance of gardens, emerald elite known Alatau spruce and poplar trees, sweeping mountain course, an abundance of bustling markets, revived freshness of the city’s fountains, the glitter of palaces and squares make an unforgettable impression on the visitors of the southern capital Almaty.

Residents and visitors of Almaty can visit 5 stadiums, race track, high-mountain skating rink “Medeu” located at an altitude of 1700 meters above sea level. There was established more than a hundred world records. Medeu is one of the favorite places of rest over the weekend. Stadium holds 32,000 spectators. There is the field near the stadium for training athletes and equipped winter swimming pool.

Picturesque mountains are the hallmark of Almaty. You can enjoy their view on the highest point of the town of Kok-Tobe (“Blue Mountain”), located at an altitude of 1,130 meters above sea level. From this summit offers magnificent view of the mountains and city. It is especially beautiful at night, when the city illuminated with multicolored lights. The cable railway rises above the old town, replete with gardens, which locals call Compote. The reason for this are the names of streets in the area: Cherry, Grushovaya, Grape, etc. At the foot of the mountain Kok-Tobe rises 350 meter high tower. This tower is one of the highest in the world, indeed it is built in a seismically hazardous zone.

Two large rivers – the Big and Small Almatinka flow down from the mountains and provide the city with fresh water, fill the reservoir and the fountains with coolness and freshness. Basin is located in a picturesque mountain terrain.

In the gorge of Minor Almatinka are several recreational facilities, resorts and private cottages. Gorge Medeu (1,691 m above sea level) is located 16 km from Almaty, near Mount Mohnatka (2,278 m). This mountain is known that 30 years ago this was the strongest destructive mudflow, and part of the mountain was destroyed. There was a real danger of people’s lives, but now there is no fear because the dam was elevated, which is also a frequent place visited by tourists and residents of the city.

If you go past the dam, you can get to the ski base Chimbulak – another pearl of Almaty, which is located at an altitude of 2,230 meters. There is a 1,500 meter cableway, which takes you to an altitude of 3163 meters to the peak Talgar. Ski slope begins from a height of 3000 m.

From Chimbulak road leads to the snowy peaks, popular with climbers and mountain climbers.
A marvelous waterfall of 1,860 meters is situated in wonderful canyon Butakovka. This is the perfect place to plunge into the unknown world of the reserved diversity of flora and fauna.
Great Gorge Almatinka more distant from the city and therefore less attendance.

If you happen to be there, you can go up to Big Almaty Lake which is located at an altitude of 2,510 meters above sea level.  The length of the lake is 1.6 km and the depth of 30-40 m. The fresh mountain air, constantly changing color of the lake and numerous mountain-type lure tourists every weekend.
Near the lake is located observatory, also there is a hotel, where you can stay and enjoy gazing at the night sky.

Over Big Almaty Lake lies the shortest path to the sandy shores of Issyk-Kul Lake, which is located in Kyrgyzstan.

For those who love the exotic and secluded places, there is an opportunity to plunge into the world of wildlife. Crossing gates Tuyuksu, you will find yourself in the gorge Mynzhylky (3,040 m), which hid a small glacial lake, whose waters are reflected the Tuyuksu peaks and glaciers Needles-Tuyuksu.

City History
History of Almaty goes deep into the centuries. Contemporary Babur Muhammad Haydar Dulat informs about the village of Almaty. Of course, the name of Almaty can be tied geographically to the city in the foothills of the Trans-Ili Alatau and district “Big Almaty”. Indisputable data obtained from numismatic sources. They are as follows: in 1979 on the territory of Almaty were found silver coins on which the Orientalist and numismatist, Nastich V. N. suggested the local Semirechie origin of these coins and the existence of the mint in the XIII century on the territory of modern Kazakhstan. At one of the coins clearly different name minting coins – the city of Almaty. Coins released at 1271-1272.

An important stage of life in Almaty is associated with the Middle Ages of VIII-XIII centuries, when there was formed settlements and cities. By this time in the Big Almaty, there were several settlements and cities, of which there is data in scientific papers.

The ancient settlement, located on the place of the Frontier School (Military Institute) has a greatest interest. Nowadays during construction works are found pottery, bronze and iron, and in 1980 discovered the remains of a medieval blacksmith’s workshop of X-XI centuries.

The size of the settlement, presence of buildings of burnt brick, finds craft pottery, remnants of the developed blacksmithing craft, and the presence of the mint absolutely proves that here in the X-XIV centuries was the city.

The emergence of Almaty applies to the period of X-XI centuries, as the center of political, economic and cultural life, and was an important part both in local and international trade along the Silk Road.

In the thirteenth century the city was destroyed by the Mongols, his convenient position played its positive role and Almaty rose from the ashes. The first Kazakh scholar Chokan Valikhanov wrote: “Almaty … was known for his trade and served as a station on the high road.”

In 1854, at the place of a modern Almaty, appeared a military settlement. It was called Zailiisky and renamed a year later in the Vernyi. It came after the merger of Kazakhstan with Russia. Ruins of the castle walls saved until the present day. Around the fortress began to settle peasant families came from Russia, from Siberia, the nomads of local areas, migrants from China Dungan and Uighur. In 1867 the city became the administrative center of Semirechensk area. In the late nineteenth century the town became the center of public life in Kazakhstan, which were male and female high school, forest school and college for gardeners. This was the beginning of the expedition of many scholars of Middle and Central Asia – Semenov Tian-Shansky, Fedchenko and here worked a geographer, ethnographer and historian Chokan Valikhanov.

In 1921 the city was returned to its original name – Almaty.

Particular development town received after the transfer of the capital of the republic in 1929 from the city of Kyzyl-Orda and the laying of the railway. During the Great Patriotic War, Almaty became the front-line hospital, here soldiers recovered their health. The city adopted many evacuated people from the western part of Russia, from Moscow, from Leningrad.

Sightseeing
The Park of 28 Panfilov’s Heroes is located in the heart of the city. Park is famous for Memorial fame, Alley of Memory and the Eternal Flame. 28 granite monuments with the names of 28 Panfilov’s heroes which died in the battle for Moscow during the Second World War installed in the alley of memory.

Holy Ascension Orthodox Cathedral (Zenkov Cathedral) surrounded by beautiful scenic Panfilov Park, named in honor of the heroes of the Second World War. Cathedral – one of the few buildings of the royal era, survived the earthquake of 1910, despite the fact that the structure of the Cathedral is built entirely of wood without a single nail. Zenkov Cathedral -is one of the eight most unique wooden buildings in the world. After the revolution there was located a historical museum and cultural center. Only in 1990, the Cathedral has regained the status of the Christian church.

Museum of national musical instruments is on the outskirts of Panfilov Park, near Zenkov Cathedral, and is located in the building of houses for officers, where in the past century, military leaders gathered together for the ceremonial meetings and receptions. The exhibition features a variety of national musical instruments, the oldest of which date from the XVII century. In addition to an exciting excursion, you can also listen to the melody of all musical exhibits.

Museum of Fine Arts named after A. Kasteev attracts by unique collections. Here is focused a priceless art fund, which is a national treasure of the state. The history of jewellery art of Kazakhstan is represented in the museum of gold and precious metals. There are many different art galleries in the city.

Central State Museum – is a reflection of all the long history of Kazakhstan. It contains unique archaeological finds from the prehistoric era. But the main treasure of the museum, undoubtedly, is the exact miniature copy of the military costume of the “Golden man”, made from 4000 gold pieces, adorned with wonderful patterns and pictures.
A new Central Mosque opened in July 1999 in Almaty. A grand building of Central Mosque, is the largest in Kazakhstan. The grand building of marble with colored tiles made in the Kazakh national style. The mosque is crowned with the blue dome of a diameter of 20 meters and a height of 36 m. The height of high minaret is 47 meters. In addition to Islamic and Orthodox cultural sites, in Almaty are synagogues, Buddhist temples, various national and cultural centers.

Republic Square – the main city square – a place for festive parades, festivals, sporting events, parades, folk festivals. Monument of the Independence is a monument dedicated to the history of the Republic. The complex reflects a chronicle of Kazakhstan since the Sak’s Queen Tomiris and up to nowadays. A symbol of independence “Golden Warrior” is in the center of the complex.

National Academic Opera and Ballet
named after Abay, built in 1941. It is the most beautiful building in the style of the Italian classic architecture with elements of eastern colors, based on the traditions of classical architecture of Kazakh heritage.

The Palace of the Republic
– the main concert venue of the Republic. It is a huge building with modern architecture, a whole complex of adjoining buildings, squares and fountains, the area of Abay.

St. Nicholas Cathedral was built in 1908 by the project of an architect Livanov N.I. It is a monument of religious architecture of Christians in Kazakhstan.

In the mountain outskirts of Almaty were built: research station to study the sun and cosmic rays, astrophysics observatory on Kamenski Plato and Pass Assy, sports complexes at the skating stadium Medeu, ski station Chimbulak, climbing and hiking camps, resorts, holiday homes and campsites.

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